Standalone boot (BELK/BXELK)

From DAVE Developer's Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Info Box
Bora5-small.jpg Applies to Bora
BORA Xpress.png Applies to BORA Xpress


200px-Emblem-important.svg.png For the sake of simplicity, this document does not address the reliability of the partitioning schemes described. This matter is beyond the scope of this document and should take into account several factors such as the intrinsic reliability of NOR/NAND flashes, the estimated usage in terms of read/write operations, etc. For more information related to this subject, please contact the technical support. 200px-Emblem-important.svg.png


History

Version Date Notes
1.0.0 December 2016 Initial release
2.0.0 March 2019 Added use case #2
2.0.1 March 2019 Added warning about realiability

Added images of case #1's partitioning scheme

2.0.2 June 2019 Fixed definition of nandboot2 variable

Fixed dump related to the download of the bitstream file

Introduction

This document shows some examples related to configuring Bora/BoraX for standalone operativity.

We'll explain how to program and configure a BoraX-based system to boot in standalone mode, without the need of a system microSD card or an NFS server. Only the flash memories available on the SoM itself will be used to store persistently all the software required.

The examples here documented are valid for Bora as well.

Use case #1

Introduction

This configuration makes use of one of the most common partitioning schemes, that is:

  • The NOR flash acts as boot memory; as such, it contains
    • bootrom header and FSBL (or header+U-Boot SPL)
    • U-Boot
    • U-Boot redundant environment
    • Even though these images are not strictly required to boot the system, the NOR flash also contains:
      • The Linux kernel image
      • The Linux Device Tree Blob (DTB)
      • The bitstream file for the Programmable Logic (PL).
  • The NAND flash contains a partition devoted to a read/write UBIFS root filesystem.

The resulting flash memory layout is illustrated in the following pictures.


NOR flash partitioning scheme


NAND flash partitioning scheme


In essence, the bootstrap sequence looks like this:

  • U-Boot fetches and programs the PL bitstream
  • Then it fetches the Linux kernel binary images (kernel and DTB) from the on-board NOR flash memory
  • Once started, the Linux kernel mount the root filesystem from a NAND partition.

Testbed

This configuration was tested with the following testbed:

  • SOM: DBXF4110D2R
  • carrier board: EVBBX0000C0R
  • software: BXELK 1.0.0

Program the root filesystem in NAND flash

This is a common step for both booting options.

  • Boot the system via SD or NFS as described into the System boot and recovery via microSD card and Booting the system via NFS
  • By default, the NAND is already partitioned to allow booting from NAND-only (see next section) and, thus, some partitions are reserved for FSBL, U-boot and kernel images. Here we won't modify this default configuration. The MTD partitions can be dumped with /proc/mtd (the partition's name should be self-explanatory)


root@bora:~# cat /proc/mtd
dev:    size   erasesize  name
mtd0: 00080000 00020000 "nand-SPL"
mtd1: 00080000 00020000 "nand-uboot"
mtd2: 00040000 00020000 "nand-uboot-env1"
mtd3: 00040000 00020000 "nand-uboot-env2"
mtd4: 00440000 00020000 "nand-bitstream"
mtd5: 00040000 00020000 "nand-device-tree"
mtd6: 00400000 00020000 "nand-linux"
mtd7: 1f600000 00020000 "nand-rootfs"


200px-Emblem-important.svg.png Please note that MTD partition index may change depending on flash device availability, flash device size, u-boot environment variables or kernel device driver load order. Always take care of looking inside /proc/mtd to match your specific layout 200px-Emblem-important.svg.png


  • Format and initialize nand-ubi partition, which in our case is mtd7, using UBI with:
ubiformat /dev/mtd7
ubiattach -m 7
ubimkvol /dev/ubi0 -N rootfs -m

E.g.

root@bora:~# ubiformat /dev/mtd7
ubiformat: mtd7 (nand), size 526385152 bytes (502.0 MiB), 4016 eraseblocks of 131072 bytes (128.0 KiB), min. I/O size 2048 bytes
libscan: scanning eraseblock 4015 -- 100 % complete
ubiformat: 4016 eraseblocks have valid erase counter, mean value is 2
ubiformat: formatting eraseblock 4015 -- 100 % complete
root@bora:~# ubiattach -m 7
[   95.732434] UBI: attaching mtd7 to ubi0
[  100.930047] UBI: scanning is finished
[  100.954932] UBI: attached mtd7 (name "nand-rootfs", size 502 MiB) to ubi0
[  100.961772] UBI: PEB size: 131072 bytes (128 KiB), LEB size: 126976 bytes
[  100.968534] UBI: min./max. I/O unit sizes: 2048/2048, sub-page size 2048
[  100.975248] UBI: VID header offset: 2048 (aligned 2048), data offset: 4096
[  100.982129] UBI: good PEBs: 4016, bad PEBs: 0, corrupted PEBs: 0
[  100.988100] UBI: user volume: 0, internal volumes: 1, max. volumes count: 128
[  100.995271] UBI: max/mean erase counter: 4/3, WL threshold: 4096, image sequence number: 1955579947
[  101.004308] UBI: available PEBs: 3852, total reserved PEBs: 164, PEBs reserved for bad PEB handling: 160
[  101.013959] UBI: background thread "ubi_bgt0d" started, PID 913
UBI device number 0, total 4016 LEBs (509935616 bytes, 486.3 MiB), available 3852 LEBs (489111552 bytes, 466.5 MiB), LEB size 126976 bytes (124.0 KiB)
root@bora:~# ubimkvol /dev/ubi0 -N rootfs -m
Set volume size to 489111552
Volume ID 0, size 3852 LEBs (489111552 bytes, 466.5 MiB), LEB size 126976 bytes (124.0 KiB), dynamic, name "rootfs", alignment 1
  • Now mount the UBI volume using UBIFS in a temporary directory
mkdir -p /mnt/nand
mount -t ubifs ubi0_0 /mnt/nand

E.g.:

root@bora:~# mkdir -p /mnt/nand
root@bora:~# mount -t ubifs ubi0_0 /mnt/nand
[  151.397013] UBIFS: default file-system created
[  151.402858] UBIFS: background thread "ubifs_bgt0_0" started, PID 918
[  151.529438] UBIFS: mounted UBI device 0, volume 0, name "rootfs"
[  151.535395] UBIFS: LEB size: 126976 bytes (124 KiB), min./max. I/O unit sizes: 2048 bytes/2048 bytes
[  151.544507] UBIFS: FS size: 487079936 bytes (464 MiB, 3836 LEBs), journal size 24379392 bytes (23 MiB, 192 LEBs)
[  151.554646] UBIFS: reserved for root: 4952683 bytes (4836 KiB)
[  151.560452] UBIFS: media format: w4/r0 (latest is w4/r0), UUID 447F1480-E173-4BE9-B5BE-A3EC1267F99E, small LPT model
  • you can now extract the root file system into that directory
tar zxvf belk-3.0.1_bora-image-devel-bora.tar.gz -C /mnt/nand
  • finally, you need to cleanly umount and detach the MTD partition
umount /mnt/nand/
ubidetach -m 7

E.g.

root@bora:~# umount /mnt/nand/
[  385.604146] UBIFS: un-mount UBI device 0, volume 0
[  385.608892] UBIFS: background thread "ubifs_bgt0_0" stops
root@bora:~# ubidetach -m 7
[  387.671411] UBI: detaching mtd7 from ubi0
[  387.677554] UBI: mtd7 is detached from ubi0
root@bora:~#

You can now safely reboot or turn off the system.

Program the boot images in NOR flash

It is assumed that the following U-Boot's environment variables are defined:

fdt_base=0x00780000
fpga_base=0x00180000
kernel_base=0x00800000
loadk=tftpboot ${loadaddr} ${bootfile}
loadfdt=tftpboot ${fdtaddr} ${fdtfile}
loadfpga=tftpboot ${loadaddr} ${fpgafile}
updatek=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${kernel_base} +${filesize};sf write ${loadaddr} ${kernel_base} ${filesize}
updatefdt=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${fdt_base} +${filesize};sf write ${fdtaddr} ${fdt_base} ${filesize}
updatefpga=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${fpga_base} +${filesize};sf write ${loadaddr} ${fpga_base} ${filesize}
spi_loadk=sf read ${loadaddr} ${kernel_base} 0x800000
spi_loadfdt=sf read ${fdtaddr} ${fdt_base} 0x80000
spi_loadfpga=sf read ${loadaddr} ${fpga_base} 0x600000
program_fpga=run spi_loadfpga;fpga load 0 ${loadaddr} 0x5b3f0c
  • Update the bootfile, fdtfile and fpgafile environment variables to fit the filename as found inside the TFTP server.
  • Program kernel and device tree on NOR flash with the following U-Boot command
zynq-uboot> sf probe; run loadfpga updatefpga loadk updatek loadfdt updatefdt

E.g.:

zynq-uboot> sf probe; run loadfpga updatefpga loadk updatek loadfdt updatefdt
SF: Detected S25FL128S_64K with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 16 MiB
Using Gem.e000b000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.0.23; our IP address is 192.168.0.209
Filename 'bora/borax-BELK-3.0.0-fpga.bin'.
Load address: 0x2080000
Loading: T #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         ###############################################################
         823.2 KiB/s
done
Bytes transferred = 5979916 (5b3f0c hex)
SF: Detected S25FL128S_64K with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 16 MiB
SF: 6029312 bytes @ 0x180000 Erased: OK
SF: 5979916 bytes @ 0x180000 Written: OK
Using Gem.e000b000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.0.23; our IP address is 192.168.0.209
Filename 'bora/linux/belk-3.0.0_uImage'.
Load address: 0x2080000
Loading: T #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         ##############################
         545.9 KiB/s
done
Bytes transferred = 3477184 (350ec0 hex)
SF: Detected S25FL128S_64K with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 16 MiB
SF: 3538944 bytes @ 0x800000 Erased: OK
SF: 3477184 bytes @ 0x800000 Written: OK
Using Gem.e000b000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.0.23; our IP address is 192.168.0.209
Filename 'bora/linux/belk-3.0.0_bora.dtb'.
Load address: 0x2000000
Loading: T ##
         2 KiB/s
done
Bytes transferred = 10019 (2723 hex)
SF: Detected S25FL128S_64K with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 16 MiB
SF: 65536 bytes @ 0x780000 Erased: OK
SF: 10019 bytes @ 0x780000 Written: OK


In U-Boot environment please set the following variables in order to be able to boot from NOR + NAND

nandargs=setenv bootargs ubi.mtd=7 root=ubi0_0 rootfstype=ubifs rw
spi_nand=sf probe; run program_fpga spi_loadk spi_loadfdt nandargs addcons addmisc; bootm ${loadaddr} - ${fdtaddr}


Reboot the system and configure U-Boot to apply the new configuration

=> setenv bootcmd run spi_nand
=> saveenv

Use case #2

Introduction

This example makes use of the partitioning scheme illustrated in the following images.


NOR flash partitioning scheme


NAND flash partitioning scheme


In this case, the NOR flash is only used to store U-Boot and its environment. All the other images are stored onto the NAND flash. Specifically, the NAND flash has four partitions that are used to store respectively:

  • The uImage binary image, which, in turn, consists of the Linux kernel and a initramfs image, as per PetaLinux's default configuration.
    • This partition is associated with the device file /dev/mtd0
  • The PL bitstream
    • This partition is associated with the device file /dev/mtd1
  • The Device Tree Blob
    • This partition is associated with the device file /dev/mtd2
  • An auxiliary read/write filesystem used by the user-space applications for several purposes such as data logging
    • This partition is associated with the device file /dev/mtd3.

The resulting bootstrap sequence is like the following:

  1. U-Boot is retrieved from the NOR flash and copied into the SDRAM memory
  2. U-boot, in turn, reads from the NAND memory the uImage, the bitstream, the DTB, and copies them into the SDRAM memory
  3. U-Boot starts the Linux kernel
  4. Finally, the Linux kernel mounts the root filesystem from the SDRAM memory and starts user-space applications and daemons.

It is worth remembering that mtd0,mtd1, and mtd2 are used as raw partitions while mtd3 is associated with a block device in order to mount a filesystem, specifically UBIFS. To handle such filesystem, the Linux kernel must be built with the UBI/UBIFS support enabled and the root filesystem must include the mtd-utils-ubifs package (see the following image).


Selecting the mtd-utils-ubifs package in PataLinux root filesystem configuration


To setup the desired standalone configuration, several operations need to be carried out. They are detailed in the following sections. It is assumed that the SOM can boot from the NOR flash. If not, please see this page.

Testbed

The testbed used to test this configuration consists of the following boards:

  • SOM: DBXD4110S2R
  • Carrier board: EVBBX0000C0R
  • Software: BXELK 4.0.0 + PetaLinux 2017.1

Storing the images onto the raw partitions of the NAND memory

Before storing the images into the NAND flash, the bitstream must be converted. For more details, please refer to this page:

$ python /devel/dave/bora-DBRx/fpga/fpga-bit-to-bin.py -f bitstream.bit bitstream.bin
Design name: prj1;UserID=0XFFFFFFFF;Version=2017.4
Partname 7z030sbg485
Date 2019/02/01
Time 16:38:59
found binary data: 5979916


Once the U-Boot console is available, the binary files to be stored into the NAND flash can be downloaded via TFTP. The size of the partitions illustrated in the previous image determine the offsets to use with the nand erase/write commands. The following box shows the full procedure.

The first file to be stored is uImage:

Bora> nand info

Device 0: nand0, sector size 128 KiB
  Page size       2048 b
  OOB size          64 b
  Erase size    131072 b
  subpagesize      512 b
  options     0x       0
  bbt options 0x   20000
Bora> tftpboot ${loadaddr} borax/uImage
Using ethernet@e000b000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.0.13; our IP address is 192.168.0.81
Filename 'borax/uImage'.
Load address: 0x2080000
Loading: #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         ##################################################
         2.5 MiB/s
done
Bytes transferred = 9904184 (972038 hex)
Bora> nand erase 0 3000000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x3000000
Erasing at 0x2fe0000 -- 100% complete.
OK
Bora> nand write ${loadaddr} 0 ${filesize}

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x972038
 9904184 bytes written: OK
Bora>


Downloading and flashing of the bitstream file:

Bora> tftpboot ${loadaddr} borax/bitstream.bin
Using ethernet@e000b000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.0.13; our IP address is 192.168.0.81
Filename 'borax/bitstream.bin'.
Load address: 0x2080000
Loading: #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         #################################################################
         ###############################################################
         2.5 MiB/s
done
Bytes transferred = 5979916 (5b3f0c hex)
Bora> nand erase 3000000 f00000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x3000000, size 0xf00000
Erasing at 0x3ee0000 -- 100% complete.
OK
Bora> nand write ${loadaddr} 3000000 ${filesize}

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x3000000, size 0x5b3f75
 5980021 bytes written: OK


Downloading and flashing of the DTB:

Bora> tftpboot ${loadaddr} borax/bora.dtb
Using ethernet@e000b000 device
TFTP from server 192.168.0.13; our IP address is 192.168.0.81
Filename 'borax/bora.dtb'.
Load address: 0x2080000
Loading: ###
         746.1 KiB/s
done
Bytes transferred = 15280 (3bb0 hex)
Bora> nand erase 3f00000 100000

NAND erase: device 0 offset 0x3f00000, size 0x100000
Erasing at 0x3fe0000 -- 100% complete.
OK
Bora> nand write ${loadaddr} 3f00000 ${filesize}

NAND write: device 0 offset 0x3f00000, size 0x3bb0
 15280 bytes written: OK

Setting up the U-Boot environment

In order to boot the system as desired, the U-Boot environment must be configured properly. The most important variable is nandboot2 that can be created as follows:

Bora> setenv nandboot2 'run program_fpga2 loadunand loadfdtnand nandargs2 addip addcons addmisc; run configid_fixupfdt; bootm ${loadaddr} - ${fdtaddr}'
Bora> savee
Saving Environment to SPI Flash...
SF: Detected s25fl128s_64k with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 32 MiB
Erasing SPI flash...Writing to SPI flash...done
Valid environment: 1


Another important variable that needs to be changed is mtdparts. It must be set like this in order to tell the kernel how the NAND flash is partitioned:

mtdparts=mtdparts=pl35x-nand:48M(data0),15M(data1),1M(data2),-(data3)


Similarly, other variables need to be created such as loadunand and loadfdtnand. The resulting environment should look like this:

Bora> print
DBXx_test_result=test_passed
addcons=setenv bootargs ${bootargs} console=${console},115200n8 debug earlyprintk
addip=setenv bootargs ${bootargs} ip=${ipaddr}:${serverip}:${gateway}:${netmask}:${hostname}:${ethdev}
addmisc=setenv bootargs ${bootargs} cma=16M ${mtdparts}
baudrate=115200
bootaddr=0x101100
bootargs=ip=192.168.0.81:192.168.0.13:192.168.0.254:255.255.255.0:bora:eth0 console=ttyPS0,115200n8 debug earlyprintk cma=16M mtdparts=pl35x-nand:48M(data0),15M(data1),1M(data2),-(data3)
bootcmd=run nandboot2
bootdelay=3
bootfile=bora/linux/belk-4.0.0_uImage
bootscript=echo Running bootscript from ${recoverydev} ...; source ${loadaddr}
cb_configid#=ffffffff
cb_uniqueid#=00000000:00000000
configid_fixupfdt=if configid checkfdt ${fdtaddr} som_configid ${som_configid#}; then configid fdt_uniqueid ${fdtaddr}; fi
console=ttyPS0
ethact=ethernet@e000b000
ethaddr=00:50:C2:1E:AF:B3
ethdev=eth0
fdt_base=0x00780000
fdt_high=0x1F000000
fdtaddr=1f00000
fdtcontroladdr=3ffa0a90
fdtfile=bora/linux/belk-4.0.0_bora.dtb
fpga_base=0x00180000
fpgafile=bora/bora.bin
fsbl_base=0x40000
gateway=192.168.0.254
header_base=0
hostname=bora
ipaddr=192.168.0.81
jtag_vx=run vxargs; bootvx 0x200000
kernel_base=0x00800000
load=tftpboot ${loadaddr} bora/u-boot.bin
loadaddr=0x02080000
loadbootscript=fatload ${recoverydev} 0:1 ${loadaddr} ${script};
loadfdt=tftpboot ${fdtaddr} ${fdtfile}
loadfdtnand=nand read ${fdtaddr} 3f00000 100000
loadfpga=tftpboot ${loadaddr} ${fpgafile}
loadfpga2=nand read ${loadaddr} 3000000 f00000
loadfsbl=tftpboot ${loadaddr} bora/bora_fsbl.bin
loadhdr=tftpboot ${loadaddr} bora/boot_header
loadk=tftpboot ${loadaddr} ${bootfile}
loadunand=nand read ${loadaddr} 0 3000000
loadvx=tftpboot ${loadaddr} ${vxfile}
mmcargs=setenv bootargs root=/dev/mmcblk0p${mmcpart} rootwait rw
mmcdev=0
mmcpart=2
mmcrecovery=mmc dev 0; mmc rescan; setenv recoverydev mmc; run recovery
modeboot=qspiboot
mtdids=nand0=pl353-nand
mtdparts=mtdparts=pl35x-nand:48M(data0),15M(data1),1M(data2),-(data3)
mtdparts1=mtdparts=pl353-nand:512K(spl),512K(uboot),256K(env1),256K(env2),4M(fpga),256K(fdt),4M(kernel),-(nand-ubi)
nand_loadk=nand read ${loadaddr} kernel
nand_updatek=nand erase.part kernel; nand write ${loadaddr} nand-kernel ${filesize}
nandargs=setenv bootargs ubi.mtd=7 root=ubi0_0 rootfstype=ubifs rw
nandargs2=setenv bootargs 'root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=${serverip}:${rootpath},tcp'
nandboot2=run program_fpga2 loadunand loadfdtnand nandargs2 addip addcons addmisc; run configid_fixupfdt; bootm ${loadaddr} - ${fdtaddr}
net_nfs=ping ${serverip};run loadk loadfdt nfsargs addip addcons addmisc; run configid_fixupfdt; bootm ${loadaddr} - ${fdtaddr}
net_vx=run loadvx vxargs; bootvx ${loadaddr}
netmask=255.255.255.0
nfsargs=setenv bootargs root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=${serverip}:${rootpath},tcp
normalboot=net_nfs
program_fpga=run loadfpga;fpga load 0 ${loadaddr} 0x${filesize}
program_fpga2=run loadfpga2; fpga load 0 ${loadaddr} f00000
qspiboot=echo Booting from QSPI: use net_nfs && run net_nfs
ramdisk_size=0x200000
recovery=if run loadbootscript; then run bootscript; fi
rootpath=/opt/nfsroot/bora/belk-4.0.0
script=boot.scr
serial#_DBXx=00C5
serverip=192.168.0.13
som_configid#=00000005
som_uniqueid#=3a11013a:40b52447
stderr=serial@e0001000
stdin=serial@e0001000
stdout=serial@e0001000
u-boot_base=0x80000
update=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${u-boot_base} +${filesize};sf write ${loadaddr} ${u-boot_base} ${filesize}
updatefdt=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${fdt_base} +${filesize};sf write ${fdtaddr} ${fdt_base} ${filesize}
updatefpga=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${fpga_base} +${filesize};sf write ${loadaddr} ${fpga_base} ${filesize}
updatefsbl=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${fsbl_base} +${filesize};sf write ${loadaddr} ${fsbl_base} ${filesize}
updatehdr=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${header_base} +${filesize};sf write ${loadaddr} ${header_base} ${filesize}
updatek=sf probe 0 0 0;sf erase ${kernel_base} +${filesize};sf write ${loadaddr} ${kernel_base} ${filesize}
usbrecovery=usb start; usb dev 0; setenv recoverydev usb; run recovery
vxargs=setenv bootargs gem(0,0)host:vxWorks.st h=${serverip} e=${ipaddr} g=${gatewayip} tn=${hostname} u=target pw=vxTarget f=0x0
vxfile=bora/vxWorks

Environment size: 4342/262139 bytes


Please note that the variable bootcmd is set to run the desired boot sequence (nandboot2).

Formatting the fourth partition of the NAND memory (mtd3)

After setting up the U-Boot environment, it is possible to start a full bootstrap sequence by issuing the boot command. Please refer to this section to see the dump of the serial console during the full bootstrap sequence.

Once the system has completed the bootstrap procedure, it is possible to format the mtd3 partition in order to store a UBIFS filesystem.

First of all, check that the NAND's partitions are defined properly:

root@bora-ubi:~# cat /proc/mtd
dev:    size   erasesize  name
mtd0: 03000000 00020000 "data0"
mtd1: 00f00000 00020000 "data1"
mtd2: 00100000 00020000 "data2"
mtd3: 3c000000 00020000 "data3"


To format the partition and to mount the newly created filesystem, issue the following commands:

root@bora-ubi:~# ubiformat /dev/mtd3
ubiformat: mtd3 (nand), size 1006632960 bytes (960.0 MiB), 7680 eraseblocks of 131072 bytes (128.0 KiB), min. I/O size 2048 bytes
libscan: scanning eraseblock 7679 -- 100 % complete
ubiformat: 7676 eraseblocks have valid erase counter, mean value is 0
ubiformat: 4 bad eraseblocks found, numbers: 7676, 7677, 7678, 7679
ubiformat: formatting eraseblock 7679 -- 100 % complete
root@bora-ubi:~# ubiattach -m 3
[ 6543.803993] ubi0: attaching mtd3
[ 6549.149717] ubi0: scanning is finished
[ 6549.180746] ubi0: attached mtd3 (name "data3", size 960 MiB)
[ 6549.186339] ubi0: PEB size: 131072 bytes (128 KiB), LEB size: 129024 bytes
[ 6549.194291] ubi0: min./max. I/O unit sizes: 2048/2048, sub-page size 512
[ 6549.201006] ubi0: VID header offset: 512 (aligned 512), data offset: 2048
[ 6549.207708] ubi0: good PEBs: 7676, bad PEBs: 4, corrupted PEBs: 0
[ 6549.213824] ubi0: user volume: 0, internal volumes: 1, max. volumes count: 128
[ 6549.221038] ubi0: max/mean erase counter: 2/1, WL threshold: 4096, image sequence number: 2065859155
[ 6549.232175] ubi0: available PEBs: 7516, total reserved PEBs: 160, PEBs reserved for bad PEB handling: 156
[ 6549.244741] ubi0: background thread "ubi_bgt0d" started, PID 1456
UBI device number 0, total 7676 LEBs (990388224 bytes, 944.5 MiB), available 7516 LEBs (969744384 bytes, 924.8 MiB), LEB size 129024 bytes (126.0 KiB)
root@bora-ubi:~# ubimkvol /dev/ubi0 -N data3 -m
Set volume size to 969744384
Volume ID 0, size 7516 LEBs (969744384 bytes, 924.8 MiB), LEB size 129024 bytes (126.0 KiB), dynamic, name "data3", alignment 1
root@bora-ubi:~# mkdir -p /mnt/data3
root@bora-ubi:~# mount -t ubifs ubi0_0 /mnt/data3
[ 6634.342953] UBIFS (ubi0:0): default file-system created
[ 6634.349787] UBIFS (ubi0:0): background thread "ubifs_bgt0_0" started, PID 1473
[ 6634.536639] UBIFS (ubi0:0): UBIFS: mounted UBI device 0, volume 0, name "data3"
[ 6634.543901] UBIFS (ubi0:0): LEB size: 129024 bytes (126 KiB), min./max. I/O unit sizes: 2048 bytes/2048 bytes
[ 6634.553858] UBIFS (ubi0:0): FS size: 967421952 bytes (922 MiB, 7498 LEBs), journal size 33546240 bytes (31 MiB, 260 LEBs)
[ 6634.564767] UBIFS (ubi0:0): reserved for root: 4952683 bytes (4836 KiB)
[ 6634.571363] UBIFS (ubi0:0): media format: w4/r0 (latest is w4/r0), UUID 8B1F86F2-F2C3-4292-845F-77D3BF3E212A, small LPT model


It is now possible to verify that the filesystem was mounted properly:

root@bora-ubi:~# mount
rootfs on / type rootfs (rw)
proc on /proc type proc (rw,relatime)
sysfs on /sys type sysfs (rw,relatime)
debugfs on /sys/kernel/debug type debugfs (rw,relatime)
devtmpfs on /dev type devtmpfs (rw,relatime,size=503536k,nr_inodes=125884,mode=755)
tmpfs on /run type tmpfs (rw,nosuid,nodev,mode=755)
tmpfs on /var/volatile type tmpfs (rw,relatime)
devpts on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000)
ubi0_0 on /mnt/data3 type ubifs (rw,relatime)


As expected, the available space on the ubi0_0 is less than the raw size of the partition:

root@bora-ubi:~# df
Filesystem           1K-blocks      Used Available Use% Mounted on
devtmpfs                503536         0    503536   0% /dev
tmpfs                   515312        36    515276   0% /run
tmpfs                   515312        40    515272   0% /var/volatile
ubi0_0                  887868        16    883016   0% /mnt/data3

Full bootstrap procedure

For the reader's convenience, the following box shows the full bootstrap procedure (please, click on the "Expand" link):

U-Boot SPL 2017.01-belk-4.0.1 (Jul 13 2017 - 16:08:49)
qspi boot
Trying to boot from SPI


U-Boot 2017.01-belk-4.0.1 (Jul 13 2017 - 16:08:49 +0200), Build: jenkins-BELK_u-boot-11

Model: Bora
Board: Xilinx Zynq
I2C:   ready
DRAM:  ECC disabled 1 GiB
Relocating to 3ff2e000, new gd at 3eaedee8, sp at 3eaedec0
NAND:  1024 MiB
MMC:   Card did not respond to voltage select!
Card did not respond to voltage select!
sdhci@e0100000 - probe failed: -95
Card did not respond to voltage select!

SF: Detected s25fl128s_64k with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 32 MiB
In:    serial@e0001000
Out:   serial@e0001000
Err:   serial@e0001000
Model: Bora
Board: Xilinx Zynq
SF: Detected s25fl128s_64k with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 32 MiB
SF: Detected s25fl128s_64k with page size 256 Bytes, erase size 64 KiB, total 32 MiB
SOM ConfigID#: 00000005
SOM UniqueID#: 3a11013a:40b52447
ds2431_readmem(): error in chip reset
ds2431_readmem(): error in reading buffer
ds2431_readmem(): error in chip reset
ds2431_readmem(): error in reading buffer
CB ConfigID CRC mismatch for 0x00000000 (was 0x00000000, expected 0x2144df1c) at block 3 (offset 96): using default
CB ConfigID#: ffffffff
CB UniqueID#: 00000000:00000000
Net:   ZYNQ GEM: e000b000, phyaddr 7, interface rgmii-id
eth0: ethernet@e000b000
Hit ENTER within 3 seconds to stop autoboot

NAND read: device 0 offset 0x3000000, size 0xf00000
 15728640 bytes read: OK

NAND read: device 0 offset 0x0, size 0x3000000
 50331648 bytes read: OK

NAND read: device 0 offset 0x3f00000, size 0x100000
 1048576 bytes read: OK
FDT: property som_configid FDT: override 'som_configid' with '00000005'
FDT: override 'som_uniqueid' with '3a11013a:40b52447'
FDT: override 'cb_uniqueid' with '00000000:00000000'
## Booting kernel from Legacy Image at 02080000 ...
   Image Name:   Linux-4.9.0-belk-4.0.0-xilinx
   Image Type:   ARM Linux Kernel Image (uncompressed)
   Data Size:    9904120 Bytes = 9.4 MiB
   Load Address: 00008000
   Entry Point:  00008000
   Verifying Checksum ... OK
## Flattened Device Tree blob at 01f00000
   Booting using the fdt blob at 0x1f00000
   Loading Kernel Image ... OK
   Loading Device Tree to 1effa000, end 1efff996 ... OK
Switching to NAND storage before starting Linux

Starting kernel ...

Uncompressing Linux... done, booting the kernel.
[    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[    0.000000] Linux version 4.9.0-belk-4.0.0-xilinx (dvdk@osboxes) (gcc version 6.2.1 20161016 (Linaro GCC 6.2-2016.11) ) #4 SMP PREEMPT Tue Mar 5 10:27:41 CET 2019
[    0.000000] CPU: ARMv7 Processor [413fc090] revision 0 (ARMv7), cr=18c5387d
[    0.000000] CPU: PIPT / VIPT nonaliasing data cache, VIPT aliasing instruction cache
[    0.000000] OF: fdt:Machine model: Bora
[    0.000000] bootconsole [earlycon0] enabled
[    0.000000] cma: Reserved 16 MiB at 0x3f000000
[    0.000000] Memory policy: Data cache writealloc
[    0.000000] On node 0 totalpages: 262144
[    0.000000] free_area_init_node: node 0, pgdat c102d8c0, node_mem_map ef7f7000
[    0.000000]   Normal zone: 1536 pages used for memmap
[    0.000000]   Normal zone: 0 pages reserved
[    0.000000]   Normal zone: 196608 pages, LIFO batch:31
[    0.000000]   HighMem zone: 65536 pages, LIFO batch:15
[    0.000000] percpu: Embedded 14 pages/cpu @ef7d1000 s26124 r8192 d23028 u57344
[    0.000000] pcpu-alloc: s26124 r8192 d23028 u57344 alloc=14*4096
[    0.000000] pcpu-alloc: [0] 0 [0] 1
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists in Zone order, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 260608
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: root=/dev/nfs rw nfsroot=${serverip}:${rootpath},tcp ip=192.168.0.81:192.168.0.13:192.168.0.254:255.255.255.0:bora:eth0 console=ttyPS0,115200n8 debug earlyprintk cma=16M mtdparts=pl35x-nand:48M(data0),15M(data1),1M(data2),-(data3)
[    0.000000] PID hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 131072 (order: 7, 524288 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 65536 (order: 6, 262144 bytes)
[    0.000000] Memory: 1007072K/1048576K available (6144K kernel code, 232K rwdata, 1576K rodata, 7168K init, 323K bss, 25120K reserved, 16384K cma-reserved, 245760K highmem)
[    0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
[    0.000000]     vector  : 0xffff0000 - 0xffff1000   (   4 kB)
[    0.000000]     fixmap  : 0xffc00000 - 0xfff00000   (3072 kB)
[    0.000000]     vmalloc : 0xf0800000 - 0xff800000   ( 240 MB)
[    0.000000]     lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xf0000000   ( 768 MB)
[    0.000000]     pkmap   : 0xbfe00000 - 0xc0000000   (   2 MB)
[    0.000000]     modules : 0xbf000000 - 0xbfe00000   (  14 MB)
[    0.000000]       .text : 0xc0008000 - 0xc0700000   (7136 kB)
[    0.000000]       .init : 0xc0900000 - 0xc1000000   (7168 kB)
[    0.000000]       .data : 0xc1000000 - 0xc103a2e0   ( 233 kB)
[    0.000000]        .bss : 0xc103a2e0 - 0xc108b0f4   ( 324 kB)
[    0.000000] Preemptible hierarchical RCU implementation.
[    0.000000]  Build-time adjustment of leaf fanout to 32.
[    0.000000]  RCU restricting CPUs from NR_CPUS=4 to nr_cpu_ids=2.
[    0.000000] RCU: Adjusting geometry for rcu_fanout_leaf=32, nr_cpu_ids=2
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS:16 nr_irqs:16 16
[    0.000000] efuse mapped to f0802000
[    0.000000] slcr mapped to f0804000
[    0.000000] L2C: platform modifies aux control register: 0x02060000 -> 0x02460000
[    0.000000] L2C: DT/platform modifies aux control register: 0x02060000 -> 0x02460000
[    0.000000] L2C-310 erratum 769419 enabled
[    0.000000] L2C-310 enabling early BRESP for Cortex-A9
[    0.000000] L2C-310 full line of zeros enabled for Cortex-A9
[    0.000000] L2C-310 dynamic clock gating enabled, standby mode enabled
[    0.000000] L2C-310 cache controller enabled, 8 ways, 512 kB
[    0.000000] L2C-310: CACHE_ID 0x410000c8, AUX_CTRL 0x46460001
[    0.000000] zynq_clock_init: clkc starts at f0804100
[    0.000000] Zynq clock init
[    0.000000] ps_clk frequency not specified, using 33 MHz.
[    0.000011] sched_clock: 64 bits at 333MHz, resolution 3ns, wraps every 4398046511103ns
[    0.007866] clocksource: arm_global_timer: mask: 0xffffffffffffffff max_cycles: 0x4ce07af025, max_idle_ns: 440795209040 ns
[    0.018884] Switching to timer-based delay loop, resolution 3ns
[    0.024886] clocksource: ttc_clocksource: mask: 0xffff max_cycles: 0xffff, max_idle_ns: 537538477 ns
[    0.033933] timer #0 at f080c000, irq=17
[    0.038249] Console: colour dummy device 80x30
[    0.042577] Calibrating delay loop (skipped), value calculated using timer frequency.. 666.66 BogoMIPS (lpj=3333333)
[    0.053057] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.057838] Mount-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.064341] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.071972] CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
[    0.076891] CPU0: thread -1, cpu 0, socket 0, mpidr 80000000
[    0.082480] Setting up static identity map for 0x100000 - 0x100058
[    0.238338] CPU1: thread -1, cpu 1, socket 0, mpidr 80000001
[    0.238441] Brought up 2 CPUs
[    0.246981] SMP: Total of 2 processors activated (1333.33 BogoMIPS).
[    0.253360] CPU: All CPU(s) started in SVC mode.
[    0.258930] devtmpfs: initialized
[    0.265358] VFP support v0.3: implementor 41 architecture 3 part 30 variant 9 rev 4
[    0.273121] clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 19112604462750000 ns
[    0.283743] pinctrl core: initialized pinctrl subsystem
[    0.290081] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.296286] DMA: preallocated 256 KiB pool for atomic coherent allocations
[    0.338362] cpuidle: using governor ladder
[    0.378348] cpuidle: using governor menu
[    0.394845] hw-breakpoint: found 5 (+1 reserved) breakpoint and 1 watchpoint registers.
[    0.402735] hw-breakpoint: maximum watchpoint size is 4 bytes.
[    0.408680] zynq-ocm f800c000.ocmc: ZYNQ OCM pool: 256 KiB @ 0xf0880000
[    0.415532] zynq-pinctrl 700.pinctrl: zynq pinctrl initialized
[    0.435803] vgaarb: loaded
[    0.439188] SCSI subsystem initialized
[    0.443427] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[    0.448889] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[    0.454202] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[    0.460236] pps_core: LinuxPPS API ver. 1 registered
[    0.465075] pps_core: Software ver. 5.3.6 - Copyright 2005-2007 Rodolfo Giometti <giometti@linux.it>
[    0.474261] PTP clock support registered
[    0.498445] clocksource: Switched to clocksource arm_global_timer
[    0.518806] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.523753] TCP established hash table entries: 8192 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[    0.530869] TCP bind hash table entries: 8192 (order: 4, 65536 bytes)
[    0.537296] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 8192 bind 8192)
[    0.543630] UDP hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.549530] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 512 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.556004] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.560678] RPC: Registered named UNIX socket transport module.
[    0.566459] RPC: Registered udp transport module.
[    0.571228] RPC: Registered tcp transport module.
[    0.575919] RPC: Registered tcp NFSv4.1 backchannel transport module.
[    0.582400] PCI: CLS 0 bytes, default 64
[    1.102945] hw perfevents: enabled with armv7_cortex_a9 PMU driver, 7 counters available
[    1.112338] futex hash table entries: 512 (order: 3, 32768 bytes)
[    1.119158] workingset: timestamp_bits=30 max_order=18 bucket_order=0
[    1.126156] jffs2: version 2.2. (NAND) (SUMMARY)  c 2001-2006 Red Hat, Inc.
[    1.133986] bounce: pool size: 64 pages
[    1.137708] io scheduler noop registered
[    1.141742] io scheduler deadline registered
[    1.145977] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
[    1.153301] dma-pl330 f8003000.dmac: Loaded driver for PL330 DMAC-241330
[    1.159920] dma-pl330 f8003000.dmac:         DBUFF-128x8bytes Num_Chans-8 Num_Peri-4 Num_Events-16
[    1.169000] e0000000.serial: ttyPS1 at MMIO 0xe0000000 (irq = 145, base_baud = 3125000) is a xuartps
[    1.178412] e0001000.serial: ttyPS0 at MMIO 0xe0001000 (irq = 146, base_baud = 3125000) is a xuartps
à[    1.187538] console [ttyPS0] enabled
[    1.187538] console [ttyPS0] enabled
[    1.194636] bootconsole [earlycon0] disabled
[    1.194636] bootconsole [earlycon0] disabled
[    1.203842] xdevcfg f8007000.devcfg: ioremap 0xf8007000 to f086f000
[    1.210771] [drm] Initialized
[    1.226747] brd: module loaded
[    1.237253] loop: module loaded
[    1.242684] libphy: Fixed MDIO Bus: probed
[    1.249767] CAN device driver interface
[    1.256030] libphy: MACB_mii_bus: probed
[    1.359199] macb e000b000.ethernet eth0: Cadence GEM rev 0x00020118 at 0xe000b000 irq 148 (00:50:c2:1e:af:b3)
[    1.369069] Micrel KSZ9031 Gigabit PHY e000b000.etherne:07: attached PHY driver [Micrel KSZ9031 Gigabit PHY] (mii_bus:phy_addr=e000b000.etherne:07, irq=-1)
[    1.383239] e1000e: Intel(R) PRO/1000 Network Driver - 3.2.6-k
[    1.389008] e1000e: Copyright(c) 1999 - 2015 Intel Corporation.
[    1.395903] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 'Enhanced' Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
[    1.402401] ehci-pci: EHCI PCI platform driver
[    1.406934] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[    1.413140] e0002000.usb supply vbus not found, using dummy regulator
[    1.419839] ULPI transceiver vendor/product ID 0x0424/0x0006
[    1.425414] Found SMSC USB331x ULPI transceiver.
[    1.430048] ULPI integrity check: passed.
[    1.435825] mousedev: PS/2 mouse device common for all mice
[    1.441733] i2c /dev entries driver
[    1.445407] cdns-i2c e0004000.i2c: 100 kHz mmio e0004000 irq 142
[    1.458675] rtc-ds3232 0-0068: rtc core: registered ds3232 as rtc0
[    1.466248] ina2xx 0-0041: power monitor ina226 (Rshunt = 10000 uOhm)
[    1.474606] Xilinx Zynq CpuIdle Driver started
[    1.479492] sdhci: Secure Digital Host Controller Interface driver
[    1.485582] sdhci: Copyright(c) Pierre Ossman
[    1.489994] sdhci-pltfm: SDHCI platform and OF driver helper
[    1.548509] mmc0: SDHCI controller on e0100000.sdhci [e0100000.sdhci] using DMA
[    1.556145] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
[    1.562699] usbhid: USB HID core driver
[    1.569627] nand: device found, Manufacturer ID: 0xef, Chip ID: 0xd3
[    1.575932] nand: Unknown W29N08GV
[    1.579320] nand: 1024 MiB, SLC, erase size: 128 KiB, page size: 2048, OOB size: 64
[    1.587634] Bad block table found at page 524224, version 0x01
[    1.594713] Bad block table found at page 524160, version 0x01
[    1.601301] 4 cmdlinepart partitions found on MTD device pl35x-nand
[    1.607504] Creating 4 MTD partitions on "pl35x-nand":
[    1.612653] 0x000000000000-0x000003000000 : "data0"
[    1.630900] 0x000003000000-0x000003f00000 : "data1"
[    1.636915] 0x000003f00000-0x000004000000 : "data2"
[    1.642873] 0x000004000000-0x000040000000 : "data3"
[    1.656664] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    1.662102] can: controller area network core (rev 20120528 abi 9)
[    1.668256] NET: Registered protocol family 29
[    1.672658] can: raw protocol (rev 20120528)
[    1.676874] can: broadcast manager protocol (rev 20161123 t)
[    1.682548] can: netlink gateway (rev 20130117) max_hops=1
[    1.688386] Registering SWP/SWPB emulation handler
[    1.707302] rtc-ds3232 0-0068: setting system clock to 2019-03-05 11:36:06 UTC (1551785766)
[    4.838753] macb e000b000.ethernet eth0: link up (1000/Full)
[    4.898465] IP-Config: Complete:
[    4.901612]      device=eth0, hwaddr=00:50:c2:1e:af:b3, ipaddr=192.168.0.81, mask=255.255.255.0, gw=192.168.0.254
[    4.911871]      host=bora, domain=, nis-domain=(none)
[    4.916971]      bootserver=192.168.0.13, rootserver=192.168.0.13, rootpath=
[    4.924277] Warning: unable to open an initial console.
[    4.950584] Freeing unused kernel memory: 7168K (c0900000 - c1000000)
[    5.765125] udevd[688]: starting version 3.2
[    5.770394] random: udevd: uninitialized urandom read (16 bytes read)
[    5.776981] random: udevd: uninitialized urandom read (16 bytes read)
[    5.783499] random: udevd: uninitialized urandom read (16 bytes read)
[    5.799662] udevd[689]: starting eudev-3.2
[    5.833892] random: udevd: uninitialized urandom read (16 bytes read)
[    6.769401] random: dd: uninitialized urandom read (512 bytes read)
[   11.480222] random: fast init done
[   27.774344] NET: Registered protocol family 10

PetaLinux 2017.2 bora-ubi /dev/ttyPS0

bora-ubi login:

Additional notes

  • mtd0, mtd1, and mtd2 are significantly larger than the files they store used in this example. This allows having a spare room to store larger images. For the sake of simplicity, U-Boot was configured to read the whole partitions (see how the loadunand, loadfdtnand, and loadfpga2 variables are defined). Obviously, this affect the overall boot time negatively. To optimize it, these variables have to be changed in order to read just the required amount of data according to the size of the actual stored files.
  • As stated previously, the root filesystem is initramfs and thus not persistent. Consequently, every time the system boots, the directory /mnt/data3 must be created before mounting the UBIFS file system stored in the NAND flash.