DESK-MX6UL-L/Deployment/Booting from NAND flash
|1.0.0||Jul 2021||DESK release|
Booting from NAND flash[edit | edit source]
With respect to the NOR flash memories, NAND devices are known to be quite challenging with regard to the reliability. This is especially true when the NAND flash is used as the boot device. Several techniques such as wear leveling and bad block management have to be implemented to achieve an acceptable reliability.
This document provides information about the NAND device management, in order to handle it properly when it is used as the boot device on NXP i.MX6-based products.
Even though the example shown here refers to an i.MX6 UltraLite board, the approach is substantially the same across all the i.MX6 family.
The test bed used in this example consists of an i.MX6 UltraLite board equipped with a 128MB 8-bit asynchronous 1-bit ECC SLC NAND memory which is connected to the EIM bus of the SoC. The boot firmware image is the U-Boot binary files (
desk-mx6ul-l-1.0.2_mx6uldesk_axelulite_nand_u-boot.img). Its size is about 535 kB. From the point of view of MTD partitions, the boot partition for SPL is
mtd0 is 2MB while the second stage partition
mtd1 is 6MB.
Boot partition organization[edit | edit source]
The following image shows the organization of the boot partition.
The bootrom plays a major role in the boot process of any i.MX6 SoC. In case the NAND memory is the boot devices, this implies that the boot partition must be organized in order fulfill the bootrom requirements. Specifically, it contains:
- A 1MB area (named Flash Control Block, FCB) which, in turn, includes
- A data structure called NAND Control Block (NCB)
- Three addresses which indicate where are located
- The Discovered Bad Block Table (DBBT) which is the data structure used to manage the bad blocks of the NAND flash
- The first copy of the firmware to load
- The second (redundant) copy of the firmware to load
- The DBBT
- The first copy of the firmware
- The second copy of the firmware.
For more details about the bootrom e the NAND boot process, please refer to the System Boot chapter of the Reference Manual of the specific i.MX6 Application Processor.
The following section will describe how to burn the boot partition in practice.
How to burn the boot partition[edit | edit source]
When the NAND flash is not burned yet, the product is usually configured in order to boot from a different device such as an SD card or through serial download mode. Once the Linux kernel is up and running, the
kobs-ng can be run as shown in the following example:
root@desk-mx6ul-axelulite:~# kobs-ng -x -v -w desk-mx6ul-l-1.0.2_mx6uldesk_axelulite_nand_SPL MTD CONFIG: chip_0_device_path = "/dev/mtd0" chip_1_device_path = "(null)" search_exponent = 2 data_setup_time = 80 data_hold_time = 60 address_setup_time = 25 data_sample_time = 6 row_address_size = 3 column_address_size = 2 read_command_code1 = 0 read_command_code2 = 48 boot_stream_major_version = 1 boot_stream_minor_version = 0 boot_stream_sub_version = 0 ncb_version = 3 boot_stream_1_address = 0 boot_stream_2_address = 0 secondary_boot_stream_off_in_MB = 64 -- We add the 1k-padding to the uboot. .tmp_kobs_ng: verifying using key '00000000000000000000000000000000' .tmp_kobs_ng: is a valid bootstream for key '00000000000000000000000000000000' mtd: use new bch layout raw access mode mtd: opening: "/dev/mtd0" NFC geometry : ECC Strength : 2 Page Size in Bytes : 2071 Metadata size : 10 ECC Chunk Size in byte : 512 ECC Chunk count : 4 Block Mark Byte Offset : 2028 Block Mark Bit Offset : 2 ==================================================== mtd: opened '/dev/mtd0' - '(null)' mtd: max_boot_stream_size_in_bytes = 524288 mtd: boot_stream_size_in_bytes = 57344 mtd: boot_stream_size_in_pages = 28 mtd: #1 0x00100000 - 0x00180000 (0x0010e000) mtd: #2 0x00180000 - 0x00200000 (0x0018e000) FCB m_u32Checksum = 0x00000000 m_u32FingerPrint = 0x20424346 m_u32Version = 0x01000000 m_NANDTiming.m_u8DataSetup = 80 m_NANDTiming.m_u8DataHold = 60 m_NANDTiming.m_u8AddressSetup = 25 m_NANDTiming.m_u8DSAMPLE_TIME = 6 m_u32PageDataSize = 2048 m_u32TotalPageSize = 2112 m_u32SectorsPerBlock = 64 m_u32NumberOfNANDs = 0 m_u32TotalInternalDie = 0 m_u32CellType = 0 m_u32EccBlockNEccType = 1 m_u32EccBlock0Size = 512 m_u32EccBlockNSize = 512 m_u32EccBlock0EccType = 1 m_u32MetadataBytes = 10 m_u32NumEccBlocksPerPage = 3 m_u32EccBlockNEccLevelSDK = 0 m_u32EccBlock0SizeSDK = 0 m_u32EccBlockNSizeSDK = 0 m_u32EccBlock0EccLevelSDK = 0 m_u32NumEccBlocksPerPageSDK = 0 m_u32MetadataBytesSDK = 0 m_u32EraseThreshold = 0 m_u32Firmware1_startingPage = 512 m_u32Firmware2_startingPage = 768 m_u32PagesInFirmware1 = 28 m_u32PagesInFirmware2 = 28 m_u32DBBTSearchAreaStartAddress = 256 m_u32BadBlockMarkerByte = 2028 m_u32BadBlockMarkerStartBit = 2 m_u32BBMarkerPhysicalOffset = 2048 m_u32BCHType = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMTiming2_ReadLatency = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMTiming2_PreambleDelay = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMTiming2_CEDelay = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMTiming2_PostambleDelay = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMTiming2_CmdAddPause = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMTiming2_DataPause = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMSpeed = 0 m_NANDTMTiming.m_u32TMTiming1_BusyTimeout = 0 m_u32DISBBM = 0 m_u32BBMarkerPhysicalOffsetInSpareData = 0 m_u32OnfiSyncEnable = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFISpeed = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFITiming_ReadLatency = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFITiming_CEDelay = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFITiming_PreambleDelay = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFITiming_PostambleDelay = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFITiming_CmdAddPause = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFITiming_DataPause = 0 m_NANDONFITiming.m_u32ONFITiming_BusyTimeout = 0 m_u32DISBBSearch = 0 m_u32RandomizerEnable = 0 m_u32ReadRetryEnable = 0 m_u32ReadRetrySeqLength = 0 DBBT m_u32Checksum = 0x00000000 m_u32FingerPrint = 0x54424244 m_u32Version = 0x01000000 m_u32DBBTNumOfPages = 0 Firmware: image #0 @ 0x100000 size 0xe000 - available 0x80000 Firmware: image #1 @ 0x180000 size 0xe000 - available 0x80000 -------------- Start to write the [ FCB ] ----- mtd: erasing @0:0x0-0x20000 mtd: Writing FCB0 [ @0:0x0 ] (840) * mtd: erasing @0:0x20000-0x40000 mtd: Writing FCB1 [ @0:0x20000 ] (840) * mtd: erasing @0:0x40000-0x60000 mtd: Writing FCB2 [ @0:0x40000 ] (840) * mtd: erasing @0:0x60000-0x80000 mtd: Writing FCB3 [ @0:0x60000 ] (840) * mtd_commit_bcb(FCB): status 0 -------------- Start to write the [ DBBT ] ----- mtd: erasing @0:0x80000-0xa0000 mtd: Writing DBBT0 [ @0:0x80000 ] (800) * mtd: erasing @0:0xa0000-0xc0000 mtd: Writing DBBT1 [ @0:0xa0000 ] (800) * mtd: erasing @0:0xc0000-0xe0000 mtd: Writing DBBT2 [ @0:0xc0000 ] (800) * mtd: erasing @0:0xe0000-0x100000 mtd: Writing DBBT3 [ @0:0xe0000 ] (800) * mtd_commit_bcb(DBBT): status 0 ---------- Start to write the [ .tmp_kobs_ng ]---- mtd: Writting .tmp_kobs_ng: #0 @0: 0x00100000 - 0x0010e000 mtd: erasing @0:0x100000-0x120000 mtd: We write one page for save guard. * mtd: Writting .tmp_kobs_ng: #1 @0: 0x00180000 - 0x0018e000 mtd: erasing @0:0x180000-0x1a0000 mtd: We write one page for save guard. * root@desk-mx6ul-axelulite:~#
then the second
mtd1 partition can be written using nandwrite:
root@desk-mx6ul-axelulite:~# flash_erase /dev/mtd1 0 0 Erasing 128 Kibyte @ 5e0000 -- 100 % complete root@desk-mx6ul-axelulite:~# nandwrite -p /dev/mtd1 desk-mx6ul-l-1.0.2_mx6uldesk_axelulite_nand_u-boot.img Writing data to block 0 at offset 0x0 Writing data to block 1 at offset 0x20000 Writing data to block 2 at offset 0x40000 Writing data to block 3 at offset 0x60000 Writing data to block 4 at offset 0x80000 root@desk-mx6ul-axelulite:~#
In this case, the SPL boot partition–
/dev/mtd0, indicated as a parameter of the command line–is 2MB. The u-boot.img partition–
/dev/mtd1 is used for the second stage binary image.